NIH study links cell phone radiation to cancer in male rats

New studies from the National Institutes of Health — specifically the National Toxicology Program — find that cell phone radiation is potentially linked with certain forms of cancer, but they’re far from conclusive. The results are complex and the studies have yet to be peer-reviewed, but some of the findings are clearly important enough to warrant public discussion.

An early, partial version of this study teasing these effects appeared in 2016 (in fact, I wrote about it), but these are the full (draft) reports complete with data.

Both papers note that “studies published to date have not demonstrated consistently increased incidences of tumors at any site associate with exposure to cell phone RFR [radio frequency radiation] in rats or mice.” But the researchers felt that “based on the designs of the existing studies, it is difficult to definitively conclude that these negative results clearly indicate that cell phone RFR is not carcinogenic.”

In other words, no one has taken it far enough, or simulated the radio-immersion environment in which we now live, enough to draw conclusions on the cancer front. So this study takes things up a notch, with longer and stronger exposures.

The studies exposed mice and rats to both 900 MHz and 1900 Mhz wavelength radio waves (each frequency being its own experiment) for about 9 hours per day, at various strengths ranging from 1 to 10 watts per kilogram. For comparison, the general limit the FCC imposes for exposure is 0.08 W/kg; the absolute maximum allowed, for the extremities of people with occupational exposures, is 20 W/kg for no longer than 6 minutes. So they were really blasting these mice.

“The levels and duration of exposure to RFR were much greater than what people experience with even the highest level of cell phone use, and exposed the rodents’ whole bodies. So, these findings should not be directly extrapolated to human cell phone usage,” explained NTP senior scientist John Bucher in a news release accompanying the papers. “We note, however, that the tumors we saw in these studies are similar to tumors previously reported in some studies of frequent cell phone users.”

The rodents were examined for various health effects after various durations, from 28 days to 2 years.

Before I state the conclusions, a note on terminology. “Equivocal evidence” is just above “no evidence” on the official scale, meaning “showing a marginal increase of neoplasms that may be test agent related.” In other words, something statistically significant but ultimately still somewhat mysterious. “Some evidence” is above that, meaning a more measurable response, followed by the also self-explanatory “clear evidence.”

At 900 MHz:

Some evidence linking RFR with malignant schwannoma in the hearts of male rats, no evidence for same in female rats. Equivocal evidence linking exposure to malignant brain glioma in females. Other tumors of various types in both sexes “may have been related to cell phone RFR exposure,” meaning the link is unclear or numbers aren’t conclusive. Less serious “nonneoplastic lesions” were more frequent in exposed males and females.

At 1900 MHz:

Equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity in lung, liver and other organ tissues in both male and female mice.

Although I would hesitate to draw any major conclusions from these studies, it seems demonstrated that there is some link here, though the level of radiation was orders of magnitude beyond what a person would ever experience in day to day life. As the researchers point out, however, relatively short-term studies like this one do little to illuminate the potential for harm in long-term exposure, such as babies who have never not been bathed in RF radiation.

An interesting side note is that the radiation-exposed rodents of both types lived significantly longer than their control peers: 28 percent of the original control group survived the full 2 years, while about twice that amount (48-68 percent) survived in the exposed group.

Two explanations are proffered for this strange result: either the radiation somehow suppressed the “chronic progressive nephropathy” that these mice tend to suffer from as they age, or possibly reduced feed intake related to the radiation might have done it. Either way, no one is suggesting that the radiation is somehow salutary to the rodents’ constitutions.

The reports and data run to hundreds of pages, so this is only a quick look by a non-expert. You can look over the full reports and supplemental materials here, but as this is a major study you can also expect replication, analysis and criticism from all quarters soon, including a scheduled external expert review organized by the NTP in March.

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Mario is here to be your new Google Maps buddy

Google may have surpassed itself using the best Google Maps easter time egg yet.

The most recent form of the application features a new ‘Mario Time’ feature that enables the classic Nintendo character they are driving together with you in your route.

Mario Time is the effect of a collaboration with Nintendo and it is moving to google’s Maps application now. The feature is going to be live for the whole week in recognition of Mario Day on March 10.&nbsp

When your application is updated towards the new edition, the feature can look whenever you look for directions. If you choose Mario Time, your family navigation is going to be absorbed with a Go-kart-driving Mario.&nbsp

It isn’t the very first time the organization has hidden a vintage gaming reference within the Maps application. The business’s formerly switched its mapping application right into a full-blown game of Pac-Manfor April Fools’ Day and The Legend of Zelda favorite Link has additionally made an appearance.&nbsp

Really, the only real bummer is the fact that Mario can not be our full-time Google Maps guide.&nbsp

Image: google

But, basically we get him to, Bing is encouraging fans to talk about screen caps of Mario driving together within the application using the hashtag #MarioMaps. (Just bear in mind, as the organization notes, to take care not to share personal info along the way.)&nbsp

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This woman printed her neuroscience thesis on a scarf and it’s brilliant

Scarves: the ultimate medium for scientific endeavour.
Image: Shutterstock / Thiti Sukapan

Does this count as plagiarism?

Writing a thesis can certainly be a grind, and one student decided to celebrate finishing it in style.

The thesis itself is on neuroscience, and you can read the intro to it on Grace’s blog.

Apparently she took inspiration from another Twitter user who showcased a similar scarf back in 2016.

Sadly the scarf’s 30,000 word limit meant Grace had to cherry-pick.

What, no graphs?? This is an outrage! Still, text is better than nothing.

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‘Mind over matter’: Stephen Hawking obituary by Roger Penrose

Theoretical physicist who made revolutionary contributions to our understanding of the nature of the universe

The image of Stephen Hawking who has died aged 76 in his motorised wheelchair, with head contorted slightly to one side and hands crossed over to work the controls, caught the public imagination, as a true symbol of the triumph of mind over matter. As with the Delphic oracle of ancient Greece, physical impairment seemed compensated by almost supernatural gifts, which allowed his mind to roam the universe freely, upon occasion enigmatically revealing some of its secrets hidden from ordinary mortal view.

Of course, such a romanticised image can represent but a partial truth. Those who knew Hawking would clearly appreciate the dominating presence of a real human being, with an enormous zest for life, great humour, and tremendous determination, yet with normal human weaknesses, as well as his more obvious strengths. It seems clear that he took great delight in his commonly perceived role as the No 1 celebrity scientist; huge audiences would attend his public lectures, perhaps not always just for scientific edification.

The scientific community might well form a more sober assessment. He was extremely highly regarded, in view of his many greatly impressive, sometimes revolutionary, contributions to the understanding of the physics and the geometry of the universe.

Hawking had been diagnosed shortly after his 21st birthday as suffering from an unspecified incurable disease, which was then identified as the fatal degenerative motor neurone disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS. Soon afterwards, rather than succumbing to depression, as others might have done, he began to set his sights on some of the most fundamental questions concerning the physical nature of the universe. In due course, he would achieve extraordinary successes against the severest physical disabilities. Defying established medical opinion, he managed to live another 55 years.

His background was academic, though not directly in mathematics or physics. His father, Frank, was an expert in tropical diseases and his mother, Isobel (nee Walker), was a free-thinking radical who had a great influence on him. He was born in Oxford and moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire, at eight. Educated at St Albans school, he won a scholarship to study physics at University College, Oxford. He was recognised as unusually capable by his tutors, but did not take his work altogether seriously. Although he obtained a first-class degree in 1962, it was not a particularly outstanding one.

He decided to continue his career in physics at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, proposing to study under the distinguished cosmologist Fred Hoyle. He was disappointed to find that Hoyle was unable to take him, the person available in that area being Dennis Sciama, unknown to Hawking at the time. In fact, this proved fortuitous, for Sciama was becoming an outstandingly stimulating figure in British cosmology, and would supervise several students who were to make impressive names for themselves in later years (including the future astronomer royal Lord Rees of Ludlow).

Sciama seemed to know everything that was going on in physics at the time, especially in cosmology, and he conveyed an infectious excitement to all who encountered him. He was also very effective in bringing together people who might have things of significance to communicate with one another.

When Hawking was in his second year of research at Cambridge, I (at Birkbeck College in London) had established a certain mathematical theorem of relevance. This showed, on the basis of a few plausible assumptions (by the use of global/topological techniques largely unfamiliar to physicists at the time) that a collapsing over-massive star would result in a singularity in space-time a place where it would be expected that densities and space-time curvatures would become infinite giving us the picture of what we now refer to as a black hole. Such a space-time singularity would lie deep within a horizon, through which no signal or material body can escape. (This picture had been put forward by J Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder in 1939, but only in the special circumstance where exact spherical symmetry was assumed. The purpose of this new theorem was to obviate such unrealistic symmetry assumptions.) At this central singularity, Einsteins classical theory of general relativity would have reached its limits.

Meanwhile, Hawking had also been thinking about this kind of problem with George Ellis, who was working on a PhD at St Johns College, Cambridge. The two men had been working on a more limited type of singularity theorem that required an unreasonably restrictive assumption. Sciama made a point of bringing Hawking and me together, and it did not take Hawking long to find a way to use my theorem in an unexpected way, so that it could be applied (in a time-reversed form) in a cosmological setting, to show that the space-time singularity referred to as the big bang was also a feature not just of the standard highly symmetrical cosmological models, but also of any qualitatively similar but asymmetrical model.

Some of the assumptions in my original theorem seem less natural in the cosmological setting than they do for collapse to a black hole. In order to generalise the mathematical result so as to remove such assumptions, Hawking embarked on a study of new mathematical techniques that appeared relevant to the problem.

A powerful body of mathematical work known as Morse theory had been part of the machinery of mathematicians active in the global (topological) study of Riemannian spaces. However, the spaces that are used in Einsteins theory are really pseudo-Riemannian and the relevant Morse theory differs in subtle but important ways. Hawking developed the necessary theory for himself (aided, in certain respects, by Charles Misner, Robert Geroch and Brandon Carter) and was able to use it to produce new theorems of a more powerful nature, in which the assumptions of my theorem could be considerably weakened, showing that a big-bang-type singularity was a necessary implication of Einsteins general relativity in broad circumstances.

A few years later (in a paper published by the Royal Society in 1970, by which time Hawking had become a fellow for distinction in science of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge), he and I joined forces to publish an even more powerful theorem which subsumed almost all the work in this area that had gone before.

In 1967, Werner Israel published a remarkable paper that had the implication that non-rotating black holes, when they had finally settled down to become stationary, would necessarily become completely spherically symmetrical. Subsequent results by Carter, David Robinson and others generalised this to include rotating black holes, the implication being that the final space-time geometry must necessarily accord with an explicit family of solutions of Einsteins equations found by Roy Kerr in 1963. A key ingredient to the full argument was that if there is any rotation present, then there must be complete axial symmetry. This ingredient was basically supplied by Hawking in 1972.

The very remarkable conclusion of all this is that the black holes that we expect to find in nature have to conform to this Kerr geometry. As the great theoretical astrophysicist Subramanyan Chandrasekhar subsequently commented, black holes are the most perfect macroscopic objects in the universe, being constructed just out of space and time; moreover, they are the simplest as well, since they can be exactly described by an explicitly known geometry (that of Kerr).

Following his work in this area, Hawking established a number of important results about black holes, such as an argument for its event horizon (its bounding surface) having to have the topology of a sphere. In collaboration with Carter and James Bardeen, in work published in 1973, he established some remarkable analogies between the behaviour of black holes and the basic laws of thermodynamics, where the horizons surface area and its surface gravity were shown to be analogous, respectively, to the thermodynamic quantities of entropy and temperature. It would be fair to say that in his highly active period leading up to this work, Hawkings research in classical general relativity was the best anywhere in the world at that time.

Hawking, Bardeen and Carter took their thermodynamic behaviour of black holes to be little more than just an analogy, with no literal physical content. A year or so earlier, Jacob Bekenstein had shown that the demands of physical consistency imply in the context of quantum mechanics that a black hole must indeed have an actual physical entropy (entropy being a physicists measure of disorder) that is proportional to its horizons surface area, but he was unable to establish the proportionality factor precisely. Yet it had seemed, on the other hand, that the physical temperature of a black hole must be exactly zero, inconsistently with this analogy, since no form of energy could escape from it, which is why Hawking and his colleagues were not prepared to take their analogy completely seriously.

Hawking had then turned his attention to quantum effects in relation to black holes, and he embarked on a calculation to determine whether tiny rotating black holes that might perhaps be created in the big bang would radiate away their rotational energy. He was startled to find that irrespective of any rotation they would radiate away their energy which, by Einsteins E=mc2, means their mass. Accordingly, any black hole actually has a non-zero temperature, agreeing precisely with the Bardeen-Carter-Hawking analogy. Moreover, Hawking was able to supply the precise value one quarter for the entropy proportionality constant that Bekenstein had been unable to determine.

This radiation coming from black holes that Hawking predicted is now, very appropriately, referred to as Hawking radiation. For any black hole that is expected to arise in normal astrophysical processes, however, the Hawking radiation would be exceedingly tiny, and certainly unobservable directly by any techniques known today. But he argued that very tiny black holes could have been produced in the big bang itself, and the Hawking radiation from such holes would build up into a final explosion that might be observed. There appears to be no evidence for such explosions, showing that the big bang was not so accommodating as Hawking wished, and this was a great disappointment to him.

These achievements were certainly important on the theoretical side. They established the theory of black-hole thermodynamics: by combining the procedures of quantum (field) theory with those of general relativity, Hawking established that it is necessary also to bring in a third subject, thermodynamics. They are generally regarded as Hawkings greatest contributions. That they have deep implications for future theories of fundamental physics is undeniable, but the detailed nature of these implications is still a matter of much heated debate.

Hawking himself was able to conclude from all this (though not with universal acceptance by particle physicists) that those fundamental constituents of ordinary matter the protons must ultimately disintegrate, although with a decay rate that is beyond present-day techniques for observing it. He also provided reasons for suspecting that the very rules of quantum mechanics might need modification, a viewpoint that he seemed originally to favour. But later (unfortunately, in my own opinion) he came to a different view, and at the Dublin international conference on gravity in July 2004, he publicly announced a change of mind (thereby conceding a bet with the Caltech physicist John Preskill) concerning his originally predicted information loss inside black holes.

Following his black-hole work, Hawking turned his attentions to the problem of quantum gravity, developing ingenious ideas for resolving some of the basic issues. Quantum gravity, which involves correctly imposing the quantum procedures of particle physics on to the very structure of space-time, is generally regarded as the most fundamental unsolved foundational issue in physics. One of its stated aims is to find a physical theory that is powerful enough to deal with the space-time singularities of classical general relativity in black holes and the big bang.

Hawkings work, up to this point, although it had involved the procedures of quantum mechanics in the curved space-time setting of Einsteins general theory of relativity, did not provide a quantum gravity theory. That would require the quantisation procedures to be applied to Einsteins curved space-time itself, not just to physical fields within curved space-time.

With James Hartle, Hawking developed a quantum procedure for handling the big-bang singularity. This is referred to as the no-boundary idea, whereby the singularity is replaced by a smooth cap, this being likened to what happens at the north pole of the Earth, where the concept of longitude loses meaning (becomes singular) while the north pole itself has a perfectly good geometry.

To make sense of this idea, Hawking needed to invoke his notion of imaginary time (or Euclideanisation), which has the effect of converting the pseudo-Riemannian geometry of Einsteins space-time into a more standard Riemannian one. Despite the ingenuity of many of these ideas, grave difficulties remain (one of these being how similar procedures could be applied to the singularities inside black holes, which is fundamentally problematic).

There are many other approaches to quantum gravity being pursued worldwide, and Hawkings procedures, though greatly respected and still investigated, are not the most popularly followed, although all others have their share of fundamental difficulties also.

To the end of his life, Hawking continued with his research into the quantum-gravity problem, and the related issues of cosmology. But concurrently with his strictly research interests, he became increasingly involved with the popularisation of science, and of his own ideas in particular. This began with the writing of his astoundingly successful book A Brief History of Time (1988), which was translated into some 40 languages and sold over 25m copies worldwide.

Undoubtedly, the brilliant title was a contributing factor to the books phenomenal success. Also, the subject matter is something that grips the public imagination. And there is a directness and clarity of style, which Hawking must have developed as a matter of necessity when trying to cope with the limitations imposed by his physical disabilities. Before needing to rely on his computerised speech, he could talk only with great difficulty and expenditure of effort, so he had to do what he could with short sentences that were directly to the point. In addition, it is hard to deny that his physical condition must itself have caught the publics imagination.

Although the dissemination of science among a broader public was certainly one of Hawkings aims in writing his book, he also had the serious purpose of making money. His financial needs were considerable, as his entourage of family, nurses, healthcare helpers and increasingly expensive equipment demanded. Some, but not all, of this was covered by grants.

To invite Hawking to a conference always involved the organisers in serious calculations. The travel and accommodation expenses would be enormous, not least because of the sheer number of people who would need to accompany him. But a popular lecture by him would always be a sell-out, and special arrangements would be needed to find a lecture hall that was big enough. An additional factor would be the ensuring that all entrances, stairways, lifts, and so on would be adequate for disabled people in general, and for his wheelchair in particular.

He clearly enjoyed his fame, taking many opportunities to travel and to have unusual experiences (such as going down a mine shaft, visiting the south pole and undergoing the zero-gravity of free fall), and to meet other distinguished people.

The presentational polish of his public lectures increased with the years. Originally, the visual material would be line drawings on transparencies, presented by a student. But in later years impressive computer-generated visuals were used. He controlled the verbal material, sentence by sentence, as it would be delivered by his computer-generated American-accented voice. High-quality pictures and computer-generated graphics also featured in his later popular books The Illustrated Brief History of Time (1996) and The Universe in a Nutshell (2001). With his daughter Lucy he wrote the expository childrens science book Georges Secret Key to the Universe (2007), and he served as an editor, co-author and commentator for many other works of popular science.

He received many high accolades and honours. In particular, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society at the remarkably early age of 32 and received its highest honour, the Copley medal, in 2006. In 1979, he became the 17th holder of the Lucasian chair of natural philosophy in Cambridge, some 310 years after Sir Isaac Newton became its second holder. He became a Companion of Honour in 1989. He made a guest appearance on the television programme Star Trek: The Next Generation, appeared in cartoon form on The Simpsons and was portrayed in the movie The Theory of Everything (2014).

It is clear that he owed a great deal to his first wife, Jane Wilde, whom he married in 1965, and with whom he had three children, Robert, Lucy and Timothy. Jane was exceptionally supportive of him in many ways. One of the most important of these may well have been in allowing him to do things for himself to an unusual extent.

He was an extraordinarily determined person. He would insist that he should do things for himself. This, in turn, perhaps kept his muscles active in a way that delayed their atrophy, thereby slowing the progress of the disease. Nevertheless, his condition continued to deteriorate, until he had almost no movement left, and his speech could barely be made out at all except by a very few who knew him well.

He contracted pneumonia while in Switzerland in 1985, and a tracheotomy was necessary to save his life. Strangely, after this brush with death, the progress of his degenerative disease seemed to slow to a virtual halt. His tracheotomy prevented any form of speech, however, so that acquiring a computerised speech synthesiser came as a necessity at that time.

In the aftermath of his encounter with pneumonia, the Hawkings home was almost taken over by nurses and medical attendants, and he and Jane drifted apart. They were divorced in 1995. In the same year, Hawking married Elaine Mason, who had been one of his nurses. Her support took a different form from Janes. In his far weaker physical state, the love, care and attention that she provided sustained him in all his activities. Yet this relationship also came to an end, and he and Elaine were divorced in 2007.

Despite his terrible physical circumstance, he almost always remained positive about life. He enjoyed his work, the company of other scientists, the arts, the fruits of his fame, his travels. He took great pleasure in children, sometimes entertaining them by swivelling around in his motorised wheelchair. Social issues concerned him. He promoted scientific understanding. He could be generous and was very often witty. On occasion he could display something of the arrogance that is not uncommon among physicists working at the cutting edge, and he had an autocratic streak. Yet he could also show a true humility that is the mark of greatness.

Hawking had many students, some of whom later made significant names for themselves. Yet being a student of his was not easy. He had been known to run his wheelchair over the foot of a student who caused him irritation. His pronouncements carried great authority, but his physical difficulties often caused them to be enigmatic in their brevity. An able colleague might be able to disentangle the intent behind them, but it would be a different matter for an inexperienced student.

To such a student, a meeting with Hawking could be a daunting experience. Hawking might ask the student to pursue some obscure route, the reason for which could seem deeply mysterious. Clarification was not available, and the student would be presented with what seemed indeed to be like the revelation of an oracle something whose truth was not to be questioned, but which if correctly interpreted and developed would surely lead onwards to a profound truth. Perhaps we are all left with this impression now.

Hawking is survived by his children.

Stephen William Hawking, physicist, born 8 January 1942; died 14 March 2018, aged 76.

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May seeks ‘safe and ethical’ AI tech

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Theresa May will state that harnessing AI poses a significant test of leadership

The pm would be to say she would like the United kingdom to guide the planet in deciding how artificial intelligence could be deployed inside a safe and ethical manner.

Theresa May will say in the World Economic Forum in Davos that the new advisory body, previously announced in the Autumn Budget, will co-ordinate efforts along with other countries.

Additionally, she’ll make sure the United kingdom will join the Davos forum’s own council on artificial intelligence.

But others might have more powerful claims.

The 2009 week, Google selected France because the base for any new research centre dedicated to exploring how AI does apply to health insurance and the atmosphere.

Facebook also announced it had been doubling how big its existing AI lab in Paris, while software firm SAP committed itself to some 2bn euro ($2.5bn &pound1.7bn) investment in to the country which will include focus on machine learning.

Meanwhile, a study released recently through the Eurasia Group consultancy recommended the US and China are engaged inside a “two-way race for AI dominance”.

It predicted Beijing would move forward because of the “impossible” benefit of offering its companies more versatility in the way they use data about its citizens.

Theresa May is anticipated to satisfy US President Jesse Trump in the Davos event on Thursday.

‘Unthinkable advances’

The pm will base britain’s claim that they can leadership partly on the healthiness of its start-up economy, quoting an amount that the new AI-related company continues to be produced in the united states each week during the last 3 years.

Additionally, she’s likely to state that the United kingdom is recognised as first on the planet because of its readiness to “bring artificial intelligence into government”.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption DeepMind’s game-playing AI experiments are some of the UK’s greatest profile success tales

However, she’ll recognise that lots of individuals have concerns about potential job losses along with other impacts from the tech, and report that AI poses among the “finest tests of leadership for the time”.

“But it’s an evaluation that i’m confident we are able to meet,” she’ll add.

“For right over the lengthy sweep in history in the invention of electricity to creation of factory production, repeatedly initially disquieting innovations have delivered formerly unthinkable advances and recommendations the best way to make individuals changes work with all of our people,” Mrs May will say.

Including via a new United kingdom advisory body, the Center for Data Ethics and Innovation.

Academics and tech industry leaders differ in opinion concerning the risks involved.

At one finish from the scale, Prof Stephen Hawking has warned that AI could “spell the finish of mankind”, while Tesla’s Elon Musk has stated that the universal fundamental earnings – by which people get compensated whether they work – includes a “good possibility” to become necessary as jobs become more and more automated.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Facebook’s AI chief has performed lower the chance of robots destroying humanity

But Facebook’s AI chief Yann LeCun has stated society will build up the “constraints” to avoid a Terminator movie-like apocalypse ever coming to pass.

And the 2009 week, Google’s former chief Eric Schmidt told the BBC he didn’t believe predictions of mass job losses would occur.

“You will see some jobs eliminated but the great majority is going to be augmented,” he described.

“You are likely to convey more doctors not less. More lawyers not less. More teachers not less.

“But they will become more efficient.”

Image caption Eric Schmidt thinks AI will enhance jobs instead of destroy them en masse

Even though many tech industry leaders acknowledge you will see an excuse for new rules and rules, additionally they suggest it might be premature introducing them for the short term.

Microsoft, for instance, has launched a magazine known as The Future Computed to coincide using the Davos event.

It proposes that it be given time to develop rules to control its very own AI work internally before legislation is passed.


Image copyright Amazon . com
Image caption A lot of the AI research involved with developing Amazon’s Alexa voice assistant ended within the United kingdom

By Rory Cellan-Johnson, Technology correspondent

May be the United kingdom really on the right track to guide the planet in Artificial Intelligence?

Well the U . s . States and China may have a factor or more to say of that.

Both of them are involved in an AI arms race and therefore are investing the type of sums that will make Chancellor Philip Hammond’s – or perhaps Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson’s – eyes water.

Still, it is a fact that working in london and Cambridge a few of the world’s leading AI scientists are in work. It had been here the Alexa digital voice assistant was created where a pc was educated to defeat champion players from the Chinese bet on Go.

Unfortunately that individuals scientists were utilized by Amazon . com by Google, which introduced in the DeepMind AI business if this was still being in the infancy.

This is a pattern frequently repeated within the United kingdom technology sector. A Chinese AI investor on a visit to the United kingdom now expressed surprise the government hadn’t done more to safeguard these AI assets.

Now there’s to become another AI body, the Center for Data Ethics and Innovation, joining inside a global conversation concerning the moral challenges resulting from AI.

Finances the Alan Turing Institute with a similar mission.

The priority is the fact that as the United kingdom agonises within the implications of the technology, china will undoubtedly receive up with it.

Telegram trouble

Theresa Might also promises to address the requirement for tech firms to tackle terrorism and extremist content during her speech.

Image copyright Telegram
Image caption The Pm is anticipated to pick out Telegram by name

She promises to condition that Telegram – a privacy-focused chat application – grew to become well-liked by crooks and terrorists more than a short time.

“We have to see more co-operation from smaller sized platforms such as this,” she’ll add.

Telegram has formerly said it is “no friend of terrorists” and blocked channels utilized by extremists.

Additionally, the pm will ask tech company investors to experience operator by demanding that trust and issues of safety be looked at.

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New DNA nanorobots successfully target and kill off cancerous tumors

Sci-fi forget about &mdash within an article out today in Nature Biotechnology,&nbspscientists could show small autonomous bots have the possibility to operate as intelligent delivery vehicles for stopping cancer in rodents.

These DNA nanorobots achieve this by searching for and injecting cancerous tumors with drugs that may stop their bloodstream supply, shriveling them up and killing them.

&ldquoUsing tumor-bearing mouse models, we show intravenously injected DNA nanorobots deliver thrombin particularly to tumor-connected bloodstream vessels and induce intravascular thrombosis, leading to tumor necrosis and inhibition of tumor growth,&rdquo the paper explains.

DNA nanorobots really are a somewhat new idea for drug delivery. They work through getting programmed DNA to fold into itself like origami after which with it just like a small machine, ready for doing things.

DNA nanorobots, Nature Biotechnology 2018

The scientists behind this research tested the delivery bots by injecting them into rodents with human cancer of the breast tumors. Within 48 hrs, the bots had effectively grabbed onto&nbspvascular cells in the tumor sites, causing thrombus within the tumor&rsquos vessels and reducing their bloodstream supply, resulting in their dying.

Remarkably, the bots didn’t cause clotting in other areas of the body, only the cancerous cells they&rsquod been developed to target, based on the paper.

The scientists were also in a position to demonstrate the bots didn’t cause clotting within the healthy tissues of Bama miniature pigs, calming fears over what could take place in bigger creatures.

The aim, repeat the scientists behind the paper, would be to eventually prove these bots can perform exactly the same factor in humans. Obviously, more work will have to be done before human trials begin.

Regardless, this can be a huge breakthrough in cancer research. The present ways of either using chemotherapy to eliminate every cell just to access cancer cell are crude compared. Using targeted drugs can also be less exact as simply reducing bloodstream supply and killing cancer around the place. If this should new technique gain approval to be used on humans soon it might have impressive affects on individuals suffering from the condition.

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6 Valentine’s Day Gift Ideas For Him Based On How Long You’ve Been Dating

The most popular practice among old people and conservative brown-nosers would be to feign concern over the way you celebrate holidays. Within their warped, parasite-addled minds, all things have a deeply serious purpose: Christmas is perfect for reflecting around the birth of Christ (who wasn’t even born in December). Thanksgiving is perfect for seriously considering everything in existence we are grateful for. Independence day is perfect for being grateful for the “freedom” and just what which means to all of us. The Jewish holiday season is for, uh… Jewish things (I am sorry in my gentile ignorance)? And it is BULLSHIT. Against all odds, our ancestors understood better&mdashthe proper reaction to the inevitable oncoming dying and loss during wintertime, a bountiful harvest, or winning a significant war is not solemn reflection. It’s to fucking PARTY Sturdy. If Thomas Jefferson saw your Instagram story individuals on offer ambushing military dudes on This summer 4 by saying&nbsp “mister, Mister! Appreciate your merchandise,” he’d slap you silly. Then he’d most likely look into growing the nation’s debt to buy French butt wine and question the closest slave sex quarters, but that is neither here nor there.

Similarly, Valentine’s will get lots of shit as a “fake” or “commercial” holiday, which is equally as dumb (what’s Arbor Day accomplished for you recently, anyway?). Not again, a “holiday” where we celebrate by expressing our passion for one another and exchanging tokens of love, however can we survive? The thing is, for those who have a guy inside your existence (whether a stable boyfriend or because of “cuffing season,” that we maintain isn’t real), it’s ok if you wish to buy one another presents. Valentine’s is difficult because nobody wants to connect&nbsp much intending to it, therefore the endless ocean of generic gifts could be a lot to examine. I have brought out a couple of suggestions, and helpfully broke them out because when lengthy you have been dating (and for that reason, cost). As always when I do one of these, I offer one nice factor that you can do for him, plus a few actual gifts. You are welcome.

Zero-Three Several weeks

Stop Being Concered About His Ex

Look, he’s dating you and also not her, ok? He chose you. As lengthy as he’s stopped beginning almost every other sentence with “Well, Madysynn and I did previously…,” you’re ready to provide an escape. She’s not gonna stop following him on Insta until she’s good and prepared, and him blocking her could be insane. Allow him to bitch about her when he’s drunk if he must it’s area of the recovery process. Just don’t put on yourself. Help remind him of why he’s best along with you, not worse.

Mophie Powerstation Boost Mini External Battery

All of us carry a lot of shit that requires electricity nowadays, but Congress has frequently overlooked my motions for any public infrastructure initiative that will install wireless charging modules under every American street and pavement (I see no flaw within this plan). Until they are available for their senses, it’s nice to possess a little insurance plan by means of a transportable charger. I’d rather eat my very own great toe than watch my phone switch into low power mode.

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

Everyone’s a fucking foodie now, are they not? Personally i think like that’s just how it’s&mdasheither cooking is really as foreign and unknowble for you being an uncontacted Amazonian tribe, or else you spend your spare time rage-commenting over how you can correctly help make your own lump charcoal inside your backyard. If your man is among the High Quality Ones (i.e., into cooking although not an asshole about this), this book is an ideal gift. It’s less an accumulation of recipes, and much more a nerdy scientific explanation of why shit is more enjoyable in restaurants of computer does in your own home&mdashand how you can bridge the space. The Meals Lab website continues to be my go-to when I wish to be considered a snobby, know-it-all food jerk for some time now, and also the book is much more in-depth. Plus, he is able to utilize it to help you nice things, so this is a win-win.

Three-Nine Several weeks

Provide Him A Goddamn Drawer

Presuming you are not a few lunatics who’ve already shacked up/become married right now, chances are you are not living together, however, you&nbsp spending much of your time each and every others’ abodes. That’s fine, but are you aware how annoying it’s to need to clean up a bag any time you wish to spend an evening Netflixing (chilling optional)? It sucks! Probably, you are spending much of your time at the place since you most likely have your shit a bit more together, whereas he may still reside in a house with like six other bros which should happen to be condemned throughout the Clinton administration. Obvious out perhaps a dozen of the old sorority philanthropy t-shirts, making space for him to help keep some pajamas, a piece outfit, a weekend outfit, and a few fundamental toiletries. I’d say he must do exactly the same for you personally, however, you know damn you grown a flag inside your drawer after such as the second week you had been dating.

Norlan Whisky Glass (Set of 2)

For that forseeable future, it appears as though men will have to pretend that whiskey is one thing we love consuming. It isn’t which i can’t appreciate a good scotch or whatever, but like, maybe you have even were built with a gin and tonic? A lot more refreshing. Anyhow, as lengthy as we must continue this charade, these glasses greatly enhance the whiskey consuming experience by continuing to keep his grubby paws from warming up. Ice will not melt as quickly if he makes use of it, and when not, the 70 degrees hooch will stay… 70 degrees. It’s pretty weird when this is the best factor you are able to say about something that’s two times the cost of gasoline but tastes essentially exactly the same.

Amazon Echo Dot

Broke: Fucking so loud other people can hear you. Automobile: Fucking so loud&nbspcan hear you. Of all of the creepy, always-listening Echo products, the Us dot is definitely the cost effective. It will everything the greater costly ones can perform, and provided he’s another, better Bluetooth speaker, its relatively weak seem quality should not be considered a problem. Simply by reporting in in to the ether just like a crazy person, he is able to utilize it to determine the weather, stream music, lookup sports scores as well as order shit like Ubers and takeout food. I personally use mine&nbspmaybe monthly, however the technology is a touch cooler and greater than I provide credit for. Signing your whole existence to certainly one of a number of mega corporations is in some way among the&nbsp dystopian futures facing us (given current occasions), so you may too embrace it.

Nine Several weeks +

Buy Yourself Some Lingerie

Couples who’ve arrived at this stage are actually annoying, simply because they want so anxiously to become given serious attention like a couple despite not married, or perhaps engaged. Such things as relocating together or marriage may indeed be coming, however, meaning you are involved with Very Adult Such things as planning your job tracks, searching at houses/apartments and like, speaking regarding your retirement accounts or whatever. The thing is, with stability and familiarity comes routine. Even though that’s necessary and not necessarily a bad factor by itself, it isn’t exactly fun. Remember whenever you began dating&mdashyou were most likely doing shit during sex that will enable you to get arrested in many NATO countries. It’s not necessary to are a porn star, but tossing on something just a little flirtier and sexier than your go-to baggy t-shirts and sweats could generate a big Return on investment. Just don’t allow him pick it. All of the under garments is going to be crotchless and putting everything on will need additional time and assistance than the usual medieval knight’s armor.

Herschel Supply Co. Novel Duffle Bag

One mark of having older and smarter is accumulating better versions of all of the shit you won’t ever even considered important whenever you were more youthful. If he’s been transporting to a health club exactly the same ugly, smelly company-issued bag she got at orientation 5 years ago, he’ll really appreciate upgrading. It’s plenty spacious, but it is still structured therefore it does not flop round the way the man you’re dating does when he’s playing pickup basketball. Plus, it appears nice enough for carry-on luggage without searching just like a hobo. I haven’t got this, however i possess some other things from Herschel and may testify it appears nice enough to warrant having to pay these prices for any canvas sack.

Bellroy Slim Leather Wallet

I’m able to personally attest that eliminating my bulky, obnoxious wallet was among the best a few things i ever did. There’s just pointless for this, because most likely 90% from the shit we feature in there’s shit we do not need. But males are creatures of habit, so the majority of us continuously give ourselves sciatica and develop that white-colored-collar skoal ring within the rear pockets of our pants. This Bellroy wallet still holds everything he needs (or even more): As much as 12 cards and some cash folded in the centre. I am talking about, the number of cards do you man have to carry? I am thinking debit cards, charge card, subway pass, ID badge, insurance card, and (maybe) a company charge card. That’s six. In case your boyfriend carries in addition to that, I’ve some not so good news regarding your financial future. Similarly, if he carries around greater than a couple of bills in cash, he’s whether drug dealer or he thinks the federal government is tracking his purchases, neither which are optimal. In either case, this can hold all his shit while remaining slim enough not to ruin the road of his suit. Jk, both of us know you are not dating the type of guy who wears a suit frequently (or ever).

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‘My periods made me suicidal so I had a hysterectomy at 28’

For a few days each month, Lucie appeared to become different person Body struggling with numerous physical and mental problems – and she or he could not realise why. She spent years searching for any physician who could offer an answer, also it required a hysterectomy at age 28 for stopping her.

“I’d realize that things would change before I even opened up my eyes each morning. It had been much like this weight have been placed on me,” states Lucie. “Used to do visit the physician at some point and let them know which i thought I had been possessed.”

Before adolescence hit, Lucie was really a calm, happy, carefree child. But from age 13 she began to be affected by severe depression, panic attacks.

She also started to self-harm, and experienced extreme moodiness. So at 14, she was brought out of her mainstream school and sent to reside in a teenager mental health unit.

“I’d an analysis of publish-traumatic stress disorder and Ocd (Obsessive-compulsive disorder), plus they pointed out bipolar quite a bit,” she recalls.

But none of them of those appeared to suit the cyclical nature of her signs and symptoms.

Things altered dramatically when she grew to become pregnant at 16 together with her boy, Candice.

“Inside a couple of several weeks of childbearing I left a healthcare facility. My signs and symptoms just appeared to vanish. I had been happy. I felt great. I felt psychologically really, very well, that was an unexpected.”

This lasted throughout being pregnant and her time breastfeeding – however when her periods returned, so did her signs and symptoms.

Image caption When Lucie was pregnant her signs and symptoms disappeared and she or he felt perfectly

A couple of years later, Lucie, from Devon, returned to school to review for any levels, but every couple of days she’d feel not able to handle pressure, and finally she quit.

Then she launched into a nationwide Vocational Qualification (NVQ) to become teaching assistant. This time around she battled right through to the ultimate stretch, stopping 3 several weeks prior to the finish, when her signs and symptoms grew to become intolerable.

But at 23 Lucie grew to become pregnant again – together with her daughter Bella. And again she felt psychologically well, despite getting to invest several weeks in hospital with severe vomiting.

After Bella was created, however, the signs and symptoms she’d been battling with for a long time grew to become a whole lot worse.

Media playback is unsupported in your device

Media captionPremenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects around one out of 20 women within the United kingdom.

Some were physical – joint and muscle discomfort, hypersensitivity to sounds, smell and touch, and extreme fatigue. Others were mental – invasive ideas, irrational conduct, forgetfulness, and overwhelming feelings of hopelessness.

“The scariest factor for me personally was depersonalisation, where I’d seem like I had been completely disconnected from my body system, and like I had been inside a dream. At points I’d discover that I did not recognise the folks which were around me. I understood which i ought to know them, however their faces just did not make sense at all in my experience,” she remembers.

“And also at some point, when things were really terrible, I possibly could hear my voice as another person’s, then when I had been speaking, I could not recognise my very own voice or my very own reflection.”

She frequently endured from suicidal ideas, which brought her to consider enormous risks, almost willing her very own dying.

Each one of these things happened at monthly times, however it wasn’t until her husband, Martin, offhandedly pointed out he ought to keep quiet before her period, so they won’t annoy her, that Lucie started to review the bond between her periods and her signs and symptoms.

“It became pretty clear what was going on,” she says. “Within hours of bleeding, I would be fine. I would go from one extreme to the other. I would know that my period was coming and though I suffered from really, really heavy, awful periods, I felt at my best when I was bleeding. I even very carefully planned my wedding day so I would be bleeding because I knew that it was the only time I felt OK.”

Up to this point, Lucie had always assumed that her hormones exacerbated the mental health problems she had been diagnosed with. Now she began to wonder if they could be the cause.


Armed with a list of about 30 symptoms and information she had printed off the internet, Lucie went to speak to her GP. At the time, she was consistently being told that she was suffering from post-natal depression after the birth of her daughter, but having suffered from depression in the past, Lucie strongly believed this wasn’t the case.

She had been medicated with anti-depressants, anti-anxiety medications and sleeping pills since she was a teenager. And now anti-psychotics were added to the mix.

“Every time I went, they would up something or add something. I was on a very hefty dose of anti-depressants. And I would say to them, ‘I’m not depressed… this isn’t depression, something else is happening.’ I felt like I was losing my mind completely.”

Her GP sent her to see a mental health team, who told her that although some of her symptoms were affecting her mental health, she had a physical condition that could not be treated by a psychiatrist. But when Lucie asked her GP if she could see a gynaecologist, he scoffed at the idea and sent her back to the mental health team.

This time they gave Lucie’s condition a name: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) – a severe form of Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). They wrote to the GP recommending that she be seen by a gynaecologist, and “think about medication to prevent ovulation permanently”.

This seemed like a possible breakthrough to Lucie, but her GP disagreed with the diagnosis – and insisted that she try every possible alternative treatment before he would refer her.

What is PMDD?

  • Severe PMS/PMDD affects 5-10% of menstruating women and is often triggered by fluctuations in hormone levels
  • Some people have a genetic vulnerability to these changes – research has shown that there’s often a family history of PMS
  • While physical symptoms are common, it is the emotional symptoms, e.g. depression, irritability, aggression, which lead to the greatest problems
  • PMS/PMDD can affect anyone who menstruates, but it most commonly occurs during adolescence, when periods first start, and in over-35s
  • Hysterectomy is usually a last resort for PMS/PMDD and not undertaken lightly, but it can be an effective cure – patients must receive HRT to ensure that PMS problems are not replaced with menopause problems

Source: Nick Panay and Anna Fenton

She was placed on various oral contraceptives, which made her feel constantly ill, and when the dosage limit was arrived at for just one anti-depressant, a different one was added on the top.

She was prescribed Mirtazapine, Sertraline, Prozac, Diazepam and sleeping tablets, which made her feel numb, making it tougher for her to argue her situation.

“It had been very hard. I had been inside my worst, I could not visit the doctors, could not even string a sentence together. I could not hold a discussion. After which after i was well, I could not even remember what I used to be like, the days just before that will you need to be a blur.”

It had been Lucie’s husband, Martin, who ensured that they stored returning to see her physician, and seeking other Gps navigation, with the hope to find one which would pay attention to her. Eventually, she met one that recognised that none of her treatments had labored, and also at lengthy last referred her to some gynaecologist.

The appointment required place several months after her proper diagnosis of PMDD and she or he was immediately offered injections, taken every four days, which may stop producing excess estrogen in her own body, causing her to enter a brief menopause. If these injections labored, it might confirm her proper diagnosis of PMDD.

The very first two days were incredibly difficult, using the worst of Lucie’s signs and symptoms recurring constantly. But next, as she was bracing on her monthly onslaught to start, nothing happened, and she or he felt truly well the very first time in more than a decade.

“All of a sudden, everything altered&hellip my signs and symptoms disappeared,” she states. “I did not understand how bad I had been until they disappeared.”

Within two several weeks, miraculously, she could appear all of the medication that she’d been in since her teens.

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At her first follow-up appointment, five several weeks following the injections had begun, her PMDD diagnosis was confirmed. Along with a new, more permanent, idea was elevated – a complete hysterectomy, the surgery of Lucie’s uterus and ovaries.

Before this, Lucie have been 100% sure that she wanted another child, but she rapidly found her conviction wavering.

“It had been vital in my experience however I understood that will mean coming off this injection, letting my periods return in, and exactly what included that – also it only agreed to be a hopeless task,” she states.

“I did not think I’d allow it to be basically did that. I decided to finish up suicidal again, doing absurd dangerous things. It had been only a frightening feeling.”

When Lucie discussed the potential of a hysterectomy with Martin, he was supportive, but concerned that they might arrived at regret the choice – which may not just eliminate anymore children, but make Lucie’s temporary menopause permanent. Lucie states she was concerned about this too. However they sitting lower to create a summary of signs and symptoms she’d formerly endured from – which time created as many as 42.

“Searching go back over that list, there is just not a way I possibly could survive that again, understanding what existence was said to be like, understanding what normal was,” she states. “I had not known what normal was so far. Martin saw the modification within me and our way of life. It had been a lot better.”

As Lucie was accepting the terms with the thought of getting a hysterectomy, though, she possessed a nasty shock – her signs and symptoms began to reappear.

“The signs and symptoms were just sneaking back piece by piece, that was frightening, and that i began feeling suicidal again. I had been so eager for the injections. I understood that they helped but all of a sudden they were not working, and that i was looking to get them earlier and earlier each month. It had been enjoy being addicted,” she states.

Lucie’s gynaecologist then informed her it had not been entirely possible that the injections were putting on off, which her proper diagnosis of PMDD should have been inaccurate. She was told to prevent using the injections and return to using contraception to assist manage her hormones.

“I believed which i could not do this. I’d rather die than return to what I used to be like before,” she states.

Support and help

The nurse that were giving her injections for several weeks suggested another GP, which one decided to Lucie’s request to become known a professional unit that she’d find out about, in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital working in london.

A couple of several weeks later, Lucie walked in to the clinic and informed her full story, returning nearly fifteen years. When she pointed out the injections have been putting on off, the physician responded this was, actually, pretty common. That validation would be a huge relief.

She was offered a shot taken every 10 days rather of 4, and for some time it labored very well it appeared there’d be no requirement for a hysterectomy. However Lucie began struggling with a brand new problem introduced on through the temporary menopause she’d gone through – a loss of revenue of bone strength and density that frequently results in brittle bones. She was prescribed Hormone Substitute Therapy (HRT) to combat this however it made her very unwell.

This composed Lucie’s mind as well as in December 2016, at age 28, she’d a hysterectomy.

Image caption Lucie recovering in hospital after her hysterectomy

Up to your day of her surgery she found herself questioning whether it was the best decision.

But around because the operation, despite periodic migraines, she’s had the ability to do greater than within the ten years before it. She’s finished her NVQ and it is now being employed as a teaching assistant, doing the job she i never thought she’d be enough to complete.

“I still haven’t quite experienced my mind around the truth that this is the way it is usually likely to be,” she states.

Lucie does not feel bitter concerning the time that it required on her to obtain a diagnosis.

“I acquired there within the finish. I simply feel lucky it had become something that may be cured and i also did see the very best people. I understand that whenever I had been more youthful, the signs and symptoms counseled me due to PMDD – I’ve no doubts about this whatsoever – however it just wasn’t recognised then like it’s now.

“It was just shrugged off as, ‘Oh no you know everybody gets PMS. Everybody feels like that sometimes,’ and that’s not the case.”

She does wish, though, that she’d been taken more seriously by her doctors after the birth of her daughter, when her symptoms were at their most severe.

“I wish I’d been listened to more, really. I just wish they’d taken into account what I was saying. If you’re feeling like I was feeling, something is quite badly wrong.”

The surgery has affected not only Lucie, but all those around her. Martin, a musician, is able to spend more time working, because Lucie can now take responsibility for the children. Toby is old enough to appreciate the positive change in his mother; Lucie hopes that Bella does not remember her the way she was before her treatment for PMDD began. They are now so much happier as a family.

“Is this what everyone else is like all the time? They don’t know how lucky they are,” Lucie says. “And it’s nothing I’ll ever ever take for granted.”

Follow Natasha Lipman on Twitter @natashalipman

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Have hormones ruled your existence? Did you need a hysterectomy while very young? Send your tales while using form below.

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Barnes & Noble is killing itself

I&rsquove been chronicling the slow demise of B&ampN for a long time now, watching the organization bleed out, visit drop, until it is a covering of their former value. B&ampN would be a cultural center in places without cultural centers. It had been a stopover on wet days in New You are able to, Chicago, and Cleveland also it would be a placed you may go to obtain your kids&rsquo first books.

That&rsquos mostly over now. On Monday the company laid off 1,800 people. This offered an expense savings of $40 million. However that&rsquos particularly interesting. Which means all of individuals people made typically $22,000 approximately each year and minimum wage workers &ndash hourly people that are often hit hardest during publish-holiday downturns &ndash could be making $15,000. Actually, what B&ampN did was fire all full-time employees at 781 stores. From the former employee:

On Monday morning, each and every Barnes &amp Noble location told their full-time employees to bring along up and then leave. The eliminated positions were the following: the mind cashiers (individuals would be the people accountable for handling the cash), the receiving managers (the folks accountable for getting in product and ensuring it is going where it ought to), digital leads (the folks accountable for solving Nook problems), the newsstand leads (the folks accountable for disbursing the magazines), and also the bargain leads (the folks accountable for maintaining the huge discount sections). A couple of from the bigger stores could spare their mind cashiers as well as their receiving managers, although not many.

Further, the organization let go many shipping receivers round the holidays, leading to bare shelves along with a customer escape to Amazon . com. In December 2017, usually B&ampN&rsquos key month, sales dropped 6 % to $953 million. Internet sales fell 4.five percent.

You should observe that when other major retailers, namely Circuit City, went the path of firing all highly compensated employees and getting in minimum wage cashiers, stockers, and salespeople it signaled the start of the finish.

Streamlining a book shop may go theoretically however in practice a book shop is much more than the usual depot for printed matter. It’s a play place, a coffee shop, along with a browsing place. Small booksellers know this plus they make their spaces intriguing and welcoming.

A Barnes &amp Noble with no guy inside a pirate suit studying tales is really a Wal-Mart without the additional advantage of promoting not only media. We think that those who dedicated their lives to selling books at B&ampN weren&rsquot there for they cash except rather labored there for that passion for books. Description of how the&rsquove lost individuals people forever.

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